During the history of mankind, with the development of people’s capacities and tools, their residence was changing too: from cave to neolithic hut ot from Roman palaces to modern villas. As a result, we got a varied history of houses’ architecture, which differs based on different regions and culture of the world. From this treasure, IDAAF presents houses typical for 10 countries.
Among the types of houses common in Turkey, Sakizi is remarkable. Sakizi, which is now increasingly popular, originated from the 19th century and is mainly characteristic for Turkey’s Aegean Sea coast. It boasts with a built-in front entrance and bare facades, on which there are small-size erkers (circular or faceted glass protruding from the wall) or enclosed balconies. Its spatial planning emphasizes its vertical spread and ensures a natural balance of heating and conditioning.
From illustrations or photographs, most of you probably remember Russian wooden houses with carved windows and different exterior decor. The main element of izbas’ interior and exterior is pine-tree – wooden trunks make a common framework. Stone and metal are not practically used in the construction. The number of walls is four or five. Besides carved details, izba’s jewelery is famous Russian stove, which is an integral part of the interior since the 15th century.
Chalet is one of the distinguished types of wooden houses, origining from Switzerland and is common in the Alpes. Most of all, chalet stands out with how it is being structured: a tree is cut into heavy, 3-6 inches thick boards and they are packed carefully, like the houses built from the ebtire tree trunk. It is worth mentioning also its heavy, gently sloped pointed roof, well-marked, wide battlement, as well as large windows and decor of balcony railings.
This type of building so widespread nowadays was associated with French aristocracy for hundreds of years (château – Geo. “Fortress”). The main features of a French Chateau are really complex, steep and gable-roofs and facades, sometimes convex, other times deepened levels. In addition, the Chateau is distinguished with its subtle, characteristic windows, arches and external angles.
Macia is a widespread traditional house in Catalonia. According to the structure and exterior, it is obviously related to the Roman Villa. These large, isolated buildings have minimum two floors and they are about five meters high. Raw stone is used to construct the main building, while stone for windows and arches is always faced.
Cozy English cottages, probably, are familiar to everyone and are associated with rainy weather. The main characteristic of its exterior is semi-hilly roofs, which might even remind us of Shakespeare’s straw roofs. English Tudor style elements are often found in cottages. In addition, typical accommodation of a foggy dawn is distinctive with their huge, outstanding chimneys.
Icelandic Peat House
The tradition of building peat houses origins from the 9th century in Island. In order to protect from harsh climate, representatived of all economic classes used to build such types of houses for all purposes. A peat house is built as follows: a wooden frame is built up on a foundation of flat stone which is enframed with peat blocks. The floor is made of wood or stone, on the roof you will often encounter grass
Tongkonan is widespread in the ethnic group living in Indonesia – Torajan people. The most distinctive feature of Tongkonan is its boat-shape and saddle-like roof, with its tip facing up sharply. Compared to the Impressive roof, the interior space is quite small and because of the lack of windows is less illuminated.
These interesting cone-like houses are traditional living places for South Italian region of Apulia. It is built with dry method, limestone or tuff. Exceptionally thick walls and impossibility of creating a multi-store structure turns Trullo into a rural house. Trullo can be circular or square. The roof consists of two membranes: the inner membrane is represented with limestone arches, which are bound with a stone at the end; The outer layer tiles are designed in a way that make the roof water-proof.
Oda is a house common in Western Georgia and its generic name is “Kolkhan Oda-House”. Oda is based on a 70 cm tall stone or wooden poles, which are not buried in the ground, but are usually installed on it.Initially, oda-houses had only one room. Later 2-3 room odas appeared. Oda-houses are distinguished by elegant and varied, decorated wooden balconies. Odes are covered with four-sided tile or shingle roof.
Author: Nuka Zurashvili
English Edit: Nutsa Nmoradze